Research and Evaluation Reports
We are working with credible third-party testing facilities to provide our customers and investors with high-quality product research.
The following research reports are currently available for viewing:
- Start_ELASIS-Fiat Group_EPA Protocol_Test Results – ENGLISH
- Start_Engine System Development Centre_Diesel Train Engine_Test
- Start_Cepolispe_Leopard-Tank_Test Results_EnglishVersion
1/ ELASIS Research Centre (part of FIAT Group) Evaluated Start Based on EPA City and Highway Protocols
When: April 12, 2010
Test Facility: ELASIS, the research arm of Italy’s Fiat Group, the world’s sixth-largest automaker.
Test Protocol: Two tests were conducted based on standardized U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission-testing protocols. One test followed the EPA’s Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75), which is designed to measure a vehicle’s tailpipe emissions under urban driving conditions. The second test followed the EPA’s Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), which is designed to represent a mix of interstate highway and rural driving. The EPA’s emission testing protocols are carefully controlled methods that include the use of standardized fuels, laboratories, testing equipment, test cycles and calculations.
Vehicle: 2003 Fiat Scudo
Engine: 2L diesel engine.
Compared to control trials, the Fiat test car with the Start Device installed produced the following results:
EPA FTP-75 (urban driving conditions)
- Total Hydrocarbon (THC) emissions were reduced by 43.75%
- Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced by 15.30%
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions were reduced by 11.09%
- Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were reduced by 73.91%
- Fuel Economy (MPG) was increased by 11.84%
EPA HFET (mix of highway and rural driving conditions)
- Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced by 72.45%
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions were reduced by 15.28%
- Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) emissions were reduced by 12.50%
- Fuel Economy (MPG) was increased by 18.14%
Download the full report here:
2/ The Cepolispe Centre Tested Start on a Leopard Army Tank
When: May 26, 2010
Research Facility: The Italian Army’s multipurpose CEPOLISPE research center, located in Montelibretti (Rome), Italy. The research was conducted by the Italian Army General Staff.
Test Protocol: European Load Response (ELR) test protocol, which consists of a sequence of load steps at constant engine speeds. ELR is the vehicle emission test procedure used by NATO.
Vehicle: German-made Leopard main battle tank
Engine: Daimler Benz MTU MB 838 CA M-500 10-cylinder diesel engine.
- Opacity decreased as much as 35.7%.
- Power (kw) increased as much as 2.16%
- Torque (nm) increased as much as 2.44%.
- Fuel consumption per hour (kg/h) decreased as much as 2.46%
Separate tests were carried out on the vehicle both before installation of the Start Device and after the device had been installed. The engine was not warmed up prior to commencement of the testing, and no adjustment to the engine was allowed during testing.
Download the full report: Start_Cepolispe_Leopard-Tank_Test Results_EnglishVersion
3/ The Engine System Development Centre (ESDC) Tested Start on a Large-Bore Diesel Train Engine
When: May 5, 2010
Test Facility: Engine System Development Centre (ESDC), a leading applied research center dedicated to large-bore diesel engines. ESDC is a division of Cad Railway Industries, which is a subsidiary of integrated rail product and service provider Global Railway Industries Ltd.
Test Protocol: This evaluation was based on ESDC’s Simplified Fuel Additive Test (SFAT), which includes a baseline preconditioning test followed by a performance test sequence. Baseline and performance tests lasted 20 hours, while the preconditioning period lasted 40 hours. The simulated operation mode was at full load, which represents 1050 rpm and 250 bhp. Engine operating parameters, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were collected during these runs.
Engine: The research was carried out on a single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel research engine.
- Total Hydrocarbon (THC) decreased by 12.6%
- Carbon Monoxide (CO) decreased by 7.4%
- Particulate Matter (PM) decreased by 6.5%.
These values are significant since they exceed the 2% error margin of the emission equipment.
In addition to measuring the test engine’s emission output, the research also evaluated the Start Device’s effect on the engine itself. A borescopic inspection showed the technology had no negative impact on the engine’s in-cylinder components.
Download the full report: Start_Engine System Development Centre_Diesel Train Engine_Test
4/ Evidence of Fuel “Cracking” – OTI Canada Group Research Results
When: October 21, 2010
What: Research conducted by chemist Domenico Chiovitti (Order Des Chimistes –1979-144) demonstrated that Start “cracks” the longer-chain hydrocarbons into shorter molecules, resulting in fuel that burns more completely and efficiently. The research was conducted at Montreal-based OTI Canada Group, an ISO 9001:2000 certified laboratory specializing in the analysis and testing of fuels and other hydrocarbon-based products.
The tests followed the American Standards Testing Materials (ASTM) and Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) research protocols. Analysis of the results showed that the reconditioned fuel had undergone chemical and physical state changes consistent with the changes that result when petroleum is “cracked” during refining. The analysis detected changes in five key areas:
- ASTM D-4052 DENSITY TEST – Density decreased from 0.7379 grams per cubic centimeter to 0.7278 grams per cubic centimeter.
- ASTM D-5191 REID VAPOR PRESSURE (RVP) TEST – RVP increased from 66.9 kilopascals to 79.0 kilopascals.
- ASTM D-86 DISTILLATION TEST – The initial boiling point of the fuel decreased from 33.5 Celsius to 30.1 Celsius.
- ASTM-D-2699-OCTANE NUMBER TEST – The octane number increased from 88.9 to 90.3. A fuel’s octane rating is a measure of its tendency to burn in a controlled manner. The higher the octane rating, the more fully and cleaner it will burn.
- CGSB -3.0 No. 14.3-99 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY TEST – Analysis of the samples using gas chromatography found that gas propane content increased from zero to 0.0488 percent and the butane content increased more than three times from 1.6285 percent to 5.3744 percent.
Theoretical and Observed Scientific Explanation of the Low-Fuel Consumption Device (Start)
By Domenico Chiovitti, May 27, 2010
Excerpt: “It is a scientific fact that the lower the molecular weights of Hydrocarbons, the better and more efficient the combustion. This is due to the fact that the low molecular weight hydrocarbons (example methane, CH4) is a gas and, therefore, its surface area is completely exposed to the oxygen, resulting in a perfect combustion. This is the reason why natural gas, whose composition is mainly methane, with lesser amounts of ethane and propane, burn with a clear flame.”
Download Domenico Chiovitti’s full report: Theoretical and Observed Scientific Explanation of the Low-Fuel Consumption Device (Start)
Download the OTI Canada Group research results: Evidence-of-Fuel-“Cracking”_ResearchResults